In accordance with subparagraph 1-8) of Article 17 of the Environmental Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan on January 9, 2007 I ORDER:

  1. To approve the following methodological documents in the field of environmental protection:

1) The method of calculating emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere by industrial enterprises in accordance with Annex 1 to this order;

  1. The Committee for Environmental Regulation and Control of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall ensure the state registration of this order with the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan and its official publication in the manner prescribed by law.
  2. This order becomes effective after ten calendar days from the date of its first official publication.

 Minister                                                                                                                                                                                                                              K.A. Bozumbayev

 

Appendix 1 to the order

of Minister of Energy

of the Republic of Kazakhstan
«____» ____________ 20__ № _____

 

Method of calculating emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere by industrial enterprises

 

  1. General Provisions
  2. This methodology for calculating emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere by industrial enterprises is designed to establish common approaches to estimating emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere based on the provisions of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook (previously referred to as the EMEP / CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidelines). The guidebook s contains rules for estimating emissions of pollutants from both man-made and natural sources and it was developed to facilitate the process of countries reporting on emission inventory under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and EU National Emission Ceilings Directive.

The guidebook provides a description of a multi-level methodology for estimating emissions. Simple (Level 1) methods are based on a simple linear relationship between activity data and emission factors. The source of data on the activities carried out is available statistical information (energy statistics, production statistics, traffic records, population numbers, etc.). Standard coefficients of emissions of Level 1 are chosen to be representational from point of view of the “typical” or “average” conditions of the production processes — its should not depend on any technology. Methods of levels 2 and 3 assume the use of more accurate coefficients calculated for specific countries, taking into account various conditions. Since such coefficients are not developed for Kazakhstan, it is proposed to use simple  coefficients of Level 1.

  1. The provisions of this methodology allow to use uniform methodological approaches to estimating emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere for existing and newly designed enterprises of the oil refining, energy and metallurgical industries.
  2. Characteristics of oil refining facilities

At the oil refining industry, crude oil is converted into refined products, including liquid fuels (starting from motor gasoline and finishing with heating oil), secondary fuel and feedstock (such as asphalt, lubricants, gases, coke), and primary petroleum products (for example, ethylene, toluene, xylene). The activities of oil refineries begins with the receipt of crude oil for storage, includes all the processing of petroleum products and processing operations, and ends with the storage of processed products before it is transported from the refinery.

  1. Calculation of emissions of heavy metals into the atmosphere by the enterprises of the oil refining industry

E pollutant = AR production х EF pollutant,

where:

E pollutant  – emissions of a specified pollutant

AR production –  production performance indicators

EF pollutant ь –  emission factor for this pollutant

 

The heavy metal emission coefficient (Level 1)  for fugitive emissions from petroleum refining and storage, as well as ventilation and flaring is presented in Table 1 and involve the use of medium or typical technology and emission reduction measures.

 Table 1 – Emission factors for oil refining and storage, ventilation and flaring in oil and gas production

Pollutant

Value

Units

95% confidence interval

lower

Upper

for processing and storage of oil

Lead

0.0051

g / Mg crude oil

0.002

0,015

Cadmium

0.0051

g / Mg crude oil

0.002

0,015

Mercury

0.0051

g / Mg crude oil

0.002

0,015

for ventilation and flaring in oil and gas production

Lead

4,9

Mg

0,49

49

Cadmium

20

Mg

2

200

Mercury

4,7

Mg

0,47

47

                 

 

5. Characteristics of energy industry facilities

The energy industry includes electricity and heat generation activities, which result in emissions from incinerators. Emissions come from a controlled combustion process (emissions from boilers, furnaces, gas turbines or stationary engines) and are characterized by the type of fuel used. The categorization of emission sources for combustion can be developed based on the size and type of facilities, as well as on primary or secondary emission reduction measures. For example, solid, liquid or gaseous fuels are used and a variety of emission reduction measures are taken.

Table 2 presents the classification of fuel by Level 1.

Table 2 – Fuel Classification by Level 1

Type of fuel by Level 1

Other fuels associated with this type

Coal

Coking coal, other bituminous coal, sub-bituminous coal, coke, “patented” industrial fuel

Brown coal

Lignite, bituminous shale, “patented” industrial fuel, peat

Gaseous fuels

Natural gas, liquids from natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, refined gas, factory gas, coke oven gas, blast furnace gas

Heavy diesel fuel

Residual products, refined raw materials, petroleum coke, water-bitumen emulsion, bitumen

Light oil products

Gas oil, kerosene, naphtha, shale oil

Biomass

Wood, charcoal, vegetable waste (agricultural)

 

The relevant fuels listed in Table 2 are based on emission characteristics and should not be used to categorize the fuel by major fuel groups (solid, liquid, gaseous, biomass) that are used in the reporting.

6. Calculation of emissions of heavy metals in the energy industry

E pollutant = AR fuel consumption х EF pollutant ,

where  E pollutantannual pollutant emissions

EF pollutant emission factor of this substance

AR fuel consumption activities characterized by fuel consumption

 

Emission coefficients of Level 1 by default are presented in Table 3. Emission coefficients are obtained from available sources based on their estimated results. Emission coefficients are grouped by major fuel types. In the absence of detailed data on the comparative use of different combustion technologies or emission reductions, the proposed coefficients represent the average for the whole range of technologies used, with a 95% confidence interval for emissions.

Table 3 – Emission coefficients for using different types of fuel

Pollutant

Value

Units

95% confidence interval

lower

Upper

when using coal

Lead

7,3

mg / GJ

5.16

12

Cadmium

0,9

mg / GJ

0,627

1,46

Mercury

1,4

mg / GJ

1,02

2,38

when using brown coal

Lead

15

mg / GJ

10.6

24,7

Cadmium

1,8

mg / GJ

1,29

3

Mercury

2,9

mg / GJ

2,09

4,88

using gaseous fuels

Lead

0.0015

mg / GJ

0.0005

0.0045

Cadmium

0.00025

mg / GJ

0.00008

0.00075

Mercury

0,1

mg / GJ

0,01

1

when using heavy diesel fuel

Lead

4,56

mg / GJ

2,28

9,11

Cadmium

1,2

mg / GJ

0.6

2,4

Mercury

0,341

mg / GJ

0,17

0,682

when using gasoil

Lead

4,07

mg / GJ

0,41

40

Cadmium

1,36

mg / GJ

0,14

15

Mercury

1,36

mg / GJ

0,14

15

when using biomass

Lead

20,6

mg / GJ

12,4

28,9

Cadmium

1,76

mg / GJ

1,06

2,47

Mercury

1,51

mg / GJ

0,903

2,11

 

  1. Characteristics of the metallurgical industry

Emissions of heavy metals are considered for the production of iron and steel, lead, zinc and copper. The production technology of these metals involves the integration of all sub-processes, starting from the supply of raw materials to the final loading from the objects.

8. Calculation of emissions of heavy metals in the metallurgical industry

 

E pollutant = AR production х EF pollutant,

где:

E pollutant  – emissions of a specified pollutant

AR production –  performance indicators in metal production

EF pollutant –  emission coefficient for this pollutant

Table 4 presents emission coefficients for the production of iron and steel, lead, zinc and copper.

Emission coefficients by default were obtained from various reference documents. Emission coefficients in Best Available Techniques (BAT) documents are mainly in ranges. The range is interpreted as a 95% confidence interval, while the geometric mean of this range is selected as the value for the emission coefficient.

Table 4 – Emission factors for the production of metals

Pollutant

Value

Units

95% confidence interval

lower

Upper

for iron and steel

Lead

4,6

g / mg steel

0,5

46

Cadmium

0,02

g / mg steel

0,003

0,1

Mercury

0,1

g / mg steel

0,02

0,5

for lead production

Lead

13

g / mg lead

8,4

17

Cadmium

0,067

g / mg lead

0,05

0,1

Mercury

1,93

g / mg lead

0,74

1,1

for the production of secondary lead

Lead

426

g / mg lead

147

587

Cadmium

1,1

g / mg lead

0,5

2,9

Mercury

for zinc production

Lead

17

g / mg zinc

4,9

34

Cadmium

2,4

g / mg zinc

0,97

3,9

Mercury

5,0

g / mg zinc

2,0

8,1

for the production of secondary zinc

Lead

5,3

g / mg zinc

3,2

8,1

Cadmium

2,8

g / mg zinc

1,6

4,1

Mercury

0,0065

g / mg zinc

0,0032

0,0097

for copper production

Lead

160

g / mg copper

100

280

Cadmium

11

g / mg copper

9

19

Mercury

0,023

g / mg copper

0,016

0,039