In accordance with subparagraph 1-8) of Article 17 of the Environmental Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated January 9, 2007 I ORDER:

  1. To approve the following methodological documents in the field of environmental protection:

1) The method for calculating emissions of persistent organic pollutants by industrial enterprises in accordance with Annex 1 to this order;

  1. The Committee for Environmental Regulation and Control of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall ensure the state registration of this order with the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan and its official publication in the manner prescribed by law.
  2. This order becomes effective after ten calendar days from the date of its first official publication.

 Minister                                                                                                                                                                                                                                K.A. Bozumbayev

 

Appendix to the order

of Minister of Energy

of the Republic of Kazakhstan
от «____» ____________ 20__   № _____

 

Method of calculating emissions of persistent organic pollutants into the environment by industrial enterprises

 

  1. General Provisions
  2. This Method of calculating emissions of persistent organic pollutants (hereinafter referred to as the Methodology) applies to industrial enterprises, as a result of whose activities emissions of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (hereinafter – UP POPs) are formed.
  3. The methodology was developed to estimate the total emissions of UP POPs generated in various industries, and the emissions of UG POPs to specific environments (air, water, soil, waste) in the framework of reporting on the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, reporting to the state register pollutant release and transfer and other reporting.
  4. The methodology was prepared on the basis of the United Nations Environment Programming Guidelines for the Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases and Other NGP POPs (2013 version) and is based on identifying possible sources of UP POP emissions and calculating the quantity of UP POPs using factors emissions.
  5. Unintentional persistent organic pollutants are understood as persistent organic pollutants formed during thermal processes in the presence of organic matter and chlorine as a result of incomplete combustion or chemical reactions and included in Annex C of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. UP POPs include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PCBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobutadiene, polychlorinated naphthalenes.

 

  1. PCDD / PCDF emissions are accompanied by emissions of other UP POPs, which can be minimized or eliminated using the same measures that apply to PCDD / PCDF emissions. Evaluation of PCDD / PCDF emissions will identify priority pollution sources, determine the necessary measures and develop action plans to minimize emissions of all unintentionally produced POPs.
  2. The value of emissions of UP POPs is expressed in micrograms of toxic equivalent of PCDD and PCDF per year (µgTE / year), where the toxic equivalent is the unit of measure for the toxicity of dioxins and furans, in terms of the most toxic dioxin – 2,3,7,8-TCDD, also known as “dioxin 1”.

 

  1. Calculation of total emissions of UP POPs into the environment by industrial enterprises

 

  1. To estimate total emissions of PCDD / PCDF, it is necessary to identify all sources of PCDD / PCDF emissions (categories and subcategories) related to the activities of the enterprise in accordance with Annex 1 to this methodology.
  2. For each category of source, the environments in which PCDD / PCDF are released are determined (Table 1).

 

Table 1 – Main emission routes for PCDD / PCDF for each category of source

 

Main categories of source

Air

Water

Soil

Product

waste

1

High temperature waste incineration

Х

     

Х

2

Production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals

Х

     

Х

3

Electricity and heat production

Х

 

Х

 

Х

4

Production of mineral products

Х

     

Х

5

Transport

Х

       

6

Uncontrolled combustion processes

Х

Х

Х

 

Х

7

Production and use of chemicals and consumer goods

Х

Х

 

Х

Х

8

others

Х

Х

Х

Х

Х

9

Deletion

Х

Х

Х

 

Х

10

Identify potential hot spots

Probably, only registration is carried out with subsequent assessment taking into account the specifics of a particular place.

 

  1. Annual emissions entering in transfer environment (air, water, soil, products and waste) from a source or category of source are calculated by the formula:

I = F * P            (2.1.)

where, I –  source intensity (PCDD / PCDF emissions per year)

F – emission factor (set out in Appendix 1 to this Methodology)

P – enterprise productivity (production / production per year)

 

  1. The emission factor in the appropriate environment: air, water, soil, products, waste for each subcategory is determined according to Appendix 2 to this Methodology. The emission factor should be selected taking into account information about the process (use of equipment for cleaning emissions, filters, etc.). For some sources, transfer is not possible in all environments. In this case, the table with the emission factors indicates the corresponding clause.
  2. As a enterprise performance, data on production volumes (for example, tons of discharged sewage, tons of production, tons of fuel burned, etc.) are used.
  3. Estimation of total emissions for each source is carried out according to the formula:

 

where, I sum-  total source intensity (total PCDD / PCDF emissions per year)

 For an industrial enterprise, annual emissions of PCDD / PCDF are defined as the sum of the total intensity of all sources of emissions of UP POPs.

Приложение 1

Main categories and subcategories of sources of emissions of UP POPs

Category

Subcategory

1

High temperature waste incineration

 

a)                  

Solid Waste Incineration

b)                  

Hazardous waste incineration

c)                   

Medical waste incineration

d)                  

Incineration of shredded light fraction

e)                   

Sewage Sludge Incineration

f)                   

Burning wood waste and biomass

g)                  

Burning animal remains

2

Production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals

a)                  

Iron Ore Agglomeration

b)                  

Coke production

c)                   

Iron and steel production, foundry

d)                  

Copper production

e)                   

Aluminum production

f)                   

Lead production

g)                  

Zinc production

h)                  

Brass and Bronze Manufacturing

i)                    

Magnesium production

j)                   

Thermal pr-in non-ferrous metals (eg. Ni)

k)                  

Shredders

l)                    

Thermal recovery of metals from wires and recycling of electronic waste

3

 

Electricity and heat production

 

a)                  

Fossil fuel power plants

b)                  

Biofuel power plants

c)                   

Landfill biogas burning

d)                  

House heating and cooking – biomass

e)                   

House heating – fossil fuel

4

 

Production of mineral products

 

a)                  

Cement kilns

b)                  

Lime production

c)                   

Brick production

d)                  

Glass production

e)                   

Ceramics production

f)                   

Preparation of asphalt mixes

g)                  

Processing of combustible shale

5

 

Transport

 

a)                  

4-stroke engines

b)                  

Two stroke engines

c)                   

Diesel engines

d)                  

Heavy fuel oil engines

6

 

Uncontrolled combustion processes

a)                  

Biomass burning

b)                  

Waste incineration and accidental fires

7

 

a)                  

Pulp and paper plants

b)                  

Production of chlorinated inorganic substances

c)                   

Chlorinated Aliphatic Chemicals

d)                  

Хлорированные ароматические химические вещества (на тонну продукта)

e)                   

 

f)                   

Other chlorinated and non-chlorinated chemicals (per tonne of product)

8

oters

 

a)                  

Oil refineries

b)                  

Biomass Drying

c)                   

Crematoriums

d)                  

Smokehouse

e)                   

Dry cleaning

9

 

Removal / Disposal

 

a)                  

Tobacco smoking

b)                  

Landfills, landfills and waste disposal from landfills

c)                   

Sewerage / sewer cleaning

d)                  

Discharge into open water

10

Contaminated areas and hot spots

a)                  

Composting

b)                  

Chlorine production sites

c)                   

Places for the production of chlorinated organic compounds

 

Appendix 2

UP POPs Emission Factors

Emission factors for Category 1 – High-temperature waste incineration

       

Categories of Sources

Potential emission pathways (µg TEQ / t)

                 

Waste

Group

Cat.

 

Class

 

Air

Water

Soil

products

Fly ash

Slag

1

 

 

 

High temperature waste incineration

a

 

 

Solid Waste Incineration

           
 

1

Low-tech burning, without CCG system

3 500

 

NA[1]

NA

0

75

 

2

Controlled incineration

350

 

NA

NA

500

15

 

3

Controlled incineration, good PGO system

30

 

NA

NA

200

7

 

4

High-tech incineration, complex CSP system

0,5

 

NA

NA

15

1,5

b

 

 

Hazardous waste incineration

           
 

1

Low-tech burning, without CCG system

35 000

 

NA

NA

9 000

 
 

2

Controlled incineration

350

 

NA

NA

900

 
 

3

Controlled incineration, good PGO system

10

 

NA

NA

450

 
 

4

High-tech incineration, complex CSP system

0,75

 

NA

NA

30

 

c

 

 

Medical waste incineration

       
 

1

Uncontrolled incineration, lack of CHP

40 000

 

NA

NA

 

200

 

2

Controlled batch incineration, no or minimal CIG

3 000

 

NA

NA

 

20

 

3

Controlled batch firing, good CG system

525

 

NA

NA

920

ND[2]

 

4

High-tech continuous burning, complex CSP system

1

 

NA

NA

150

 

d

 

 

Incineration of shredded light fraction

     
 

1

Uncontrolled incineration, lack of CHP system

1 000

 

NA

NA

ND

ND

 

2

Controlled batch incineration, no or minimal CIG

50

 

NA

NA

ND

ND

 

3

High-tech continuous burning, complex CSP system

1

 

NA

NA

150

 

e

 

 

Sewage Sludge Incineration

           
 

1

Old ovens, batches, lack or insufficient CHP

50

 

NA

NA

23

 
 

2

Modernized enterprise, continuous cycle, some PGO

4

 

NA

NA

0,5

 
 

3

Modern enterprise full PGO

0,4

 

NA

NA

0,5

 

f

 

 

Burning wood waste and biomass

   
 

1

Old furnaces, batch burning, absence or insufficient CHP

100

 

NA

NA

1 000

 
 

2

Upgraded enterprise continuous cycle, some PGO

10

 

NA

NA

10

 
 

3

A modern enterprise full of PGO

1

 

NA

NA

0,2

 

g

 

 

Burning animal remains

           
 

1

Old furnaces, batch burning, absence or insufficient CHP

500

 

NA

NA

ND

ND

 

2

Upgraded enterprise continuous cycle, some PGO

50

 

NA

NA

ND

ND

 

3

A modern enterprise full of PGO

5

 

NA

NA

ND

ND

 

Emission Factors for Group 2 – Ferrous and Nonferrous Metal Production  

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ferrous and Nonferrous Metal Production 

         

a

 

 

 

 

Iron ore sintering

         

1

High waste recycling, incl. oil contaminated

materials, no or limited air pollution control

20

ND

ND

ND

0,003

2

Low waste use, well controlled plant

5

ND

ND

ND

1

3

High technology, emission reduction

0,3

ND

ND

ND

2

b

 

 

 

Coke production

         

1

No gas cleaning

3

0,06

ND

ND

ND

2

Afterburner/dust removal

0,03

0,06

ND

ND

ND

c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron and steel production plants and

foundries

         
 

Iron and steel plants

         

1

Dirty scrap, scrap preheating, limited controls

10

ND

NA

NA

15

2

Clean scrap/virgin iron or dirty scrap,

afterburner, fabric filter

3

ND

NA

NA

15

3

Clean scrap/virgin iron or dirty scrap, EAF

equipped with APC designed for low

PCDD/PCDF emission, BOF furnaces

0,1

ND

NA

NA

0,1

4

Blast furnaces with APCS

0,01

ND

NA

NA

ND

 

Foundries

         

1

Cold air cupola or hot air cupola or rotary

drum, no APCS

10

ND

NA

NA

ND

2

Rotary drum ‐ fabric filter or wet scribber

4,3

ND

NA

NA

0,2

3

Cold air cupola, fabric filter or wet scrubber

1

ND

NA

NA

8

4

Hot air cupola or induction furnace, fabric filter

or wet scrubber

0,03

ND

NA

NA

0,5

 

Hotdip galvanizing plants

         

1

Facilities without APCS

0,06

NA

NA

NA

0,01

2

Facilties without degreasing step, good APCS

0,05

NA

NA

NA

2

3

Facilities with degreasing step, good APCS

0,02

NA

NA

NA

1

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper production

         

1

Sec. Cu ‐ Basic technology

800

0,5

NA

NA

630

2

Sec. Cu ‐ Well controlled

50

0,5

NA

NA

630

3

Sec. Cu ‐ Optimized for PCDD/PCDF control

5

0,5

NA

NA

300

4

Smelting and casting of Cu/Cu alloys

0,03

0,5

NA

NA

ND

5

Prim. Cu, well‐controlled, with some secondary

feed materials

0,01

0,5

NA

NA

ND

6

Pure prim. Cu smelters with no secondary feed

ND

0,5

NA

NA

NA

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aluminum production

         

1

Processing scrap Al, minimal treatment of

inputs, simple dust removal

100

ND

NA

NA

200

2

Scrap treatment, well‐controlled, fabric filter,

lime injection

4

ND

NA

NA

400

3

Optimized process for PCDD/PPCDF abatement

0,5

ND

NA

NA

100

4

Shavings/turnings drying (simple plants)

5,0

NA

NA

NA

NA

5

Thermal de‐oiling, rotary furnaces,

afterburners, fabric filters

0,3

NA

NA

NA

NA

6

Primary Al plants

ND

NA

NA

NA

ND

f

 

 

 

 

 

Lead production

         

1

Lead production from scrap containing PVC

80

ND

NA

NA

ND

2

Lead production from PVC/Cl2 free scrap,

some APCS

8

ND

NA

NA

50

3

Lead production from PVC/Cl2 free scrap in

highly efficient furnaces, with APC including

scrubbers

0,05

ND

NA

NA

ND

4

Pure primary lead production

0,4

ND

NA

NA

ND

g

 

 

 

 

 

Zinc production

         

1

Kiln with no dust control

1 000

ND

NA

NA

0,02

2

Hot briquetting/rotarry furnaces, basic control *

100

ND

NA

NA

1

3

Comprehensive control

5

ND

NA

NA

1

4

Zinc melting and primary zinc production

0,1

ND

NA

NA

ND

h

 

 

 

 

 

Brass and bronze production

         

1

Thermal de‐oiling of turnings

2,5

NA

NA

NA

NA

2

Simple melting furnaces

10

NA

NA

NA

ND

3

Mixed scarp, induction furnace, bagfilter

3,5

ND

NA

NA

125

4

Sophisticated equipment, clean inputs, good

APCS

0,1

ND

NA

NA

ND

i

 

 

 

 

Magnesium production

         

1

Using MgO/C thermal treatment in Cl2, no

effluent treatment, poor APCS

250

9 000

NA

ND

0

2

Using MgO/C thermal treatment in Cl2,

comprehensive pollution control

50

30

NA

ND

9 000

3

Thermal reduction process

3

ND

NA

NA

ND

j

 

 

 

Thermal Nonferrous metal production (e.g.,

Ni)              

     

         

1

Contaminated scrap, simple or no APCS

100

ND

ND

ND

ND

2

Clean scrap, good APCS

2

ND

ND

ND

ND

k

 

 

  Shredders

         

1

Metal shredding plants

0,2

NA

NA

ND

5

l

 

 

 

 

 

Thermal wire reclamation and ewaste

recycling

         

1

Open burning of cable

12 000

ND

ND

ND

ND

2

Open burning of circuit boards

100

       

3

Basic furnace with after burner, wet scrubber

40

ND

NA

ND

ND

4

Burning electric motors, brake shoes, etc.,

afterburner

3,3

ND

NA

ND

ND

 

Emission factors for group 3 – Power Generation and Heating

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

 

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

Heat and Power Generation

         

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Fossil fuel power plants

         

1

Fossil fuel/waste co‐fired power

boilers

35

ND

NA

NA

ND

2

Coal fired power boilers

10

ND

NA

NA

14

3

Peat fired power boilers

17,5

       

4

Heavy fuel fired power boilers

2,5

ND

NA

NA

ND

5

Shale oil fired power plants

1,5

ND

NA

NA

ND

6

Light fuel oil/natural gas fired power

boilers

0,5

ND

NA

NA

ND

b

 

 

 

 

 

Biomass power plants

         

1

Mixed biomass fired power boilers

500

ND

NA

NA

ND

2

Clean wood fired power boilers

50

ND

NA

NA

15

3

Straw fired boilers

50

     

70

4

Boilers fired with bagasse, rice husk

etc.

50

ND

NA

NA

50

c

 

 

Landfill biogas combustion

         

1

Biogas‐/landfill gas fired boilers,

motors/turbines and flaring

8

ND

NA

NA

NA

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Household heating and cooking

Biomass

       

µg TEQ/t Ash

1

Contaminated biomass fired stoves

1 500

ND

NA

NA

1 000

2

Virgin biomass fired stoves (advanced

technology)

100

ND

NA

NA

10

3

Straw fired stoves

450

     

30

4

Charcoal fired stoves

100

     

0,1

5

Open‐fire (3‐stone) stoves (virgin wood)

20

     

0,1

6

Simple stoves (virgin wood)

100

     

0,1

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domesting heating ‐ Fossil fuels

       

µg TEQ/t Ash

1

High chlorine coal/waste/biomass co‐fired stoves

1 700

ND

NA

NA

5 000

2

Coal fired stoves

200

ND

NA

NA

NA

3

Peat fired stoves

100

     

5

4

Oil fired stoves

100

ND

NA

NA

NA

5

Furnaces on natural or liquefied petroleum gas

10

ND

NA

NA

NA

6

Simple coal / coke ovens

1,5

NA

NA

NA

NA

                                 

 

Emission factors for group 4 – Production of Mineral Products

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Production of Mineral Products

         

a

 

 

 

 

 

Cement kilns

         

1

Shaft kilns

5

NA

NA

ND

ND

2

Old wet kilns, ESP temperature >300°C

5

NA

ND

ND

NA

3

Rotary kilns, ESP/FF temperature 200 to 300°C

0,6

NA

ND

ND

NA

4

Wet kilns, ESP/FF temperature <200°Cand all types of dry kilns with preheater/precalciner, T<200°C

0,05

NA

ND

ND

NA

b

 

 

 

Lime

         

1

Cyclone/no dust control, contaminated or poor fuels

10

ND

ND

ND

ND

2

Good dust abatement

0,07

ND

ND

ND

ND

c

 

 

 

Brick

         

1

No emission abatement in place and using contaminated fuels

0,2

NA

ND

0,06

0,02

2

No emission abatement in place and using non‐contaminated fuels; Emission abatement in place and using any kind of fuel; No emission abatement in place but state of the art process control

0,02

NA

ND

0,006

0,002

d

 

 

 

Glass

         

1

Cyclone/no dust control, contaminated or poor fuels

0,2

NA

ND

ND

ND

2

Good dust abatement

0,015

NA

ND

ND

ND

e

 

 

 

Ceramics

         

1

Cyclone/no dust control, contaminated or poor fuels

0,2

NA

ND

ND

ND

2

Good dust abatement

0,02

NA

ND

ND

ND

f

 

 

 

Asphalt mixing

         

1

Mixing plant with no gas cleaning

0,07

NA

ND

ND

ND

2

Mixing plant with fabric filter, wet scrubber

0,007

NA

ND

ND

0,06

g

 

 

 

Oil shale processing

         

1

Thermal fractionation

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

2

Oil shale pyrolysis

0,003

NA

ND

0,07

2

                         

 

Emission factors for group 5 – Transport

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transport

         

a

 

 

 

 

 

4Stroke engines

         

1

Leaded fuel

2,2

NA

NA

NA

NA

2

Unleaded gasoline without catalyst

0,1

NA

NA

NA

NA

3

Unleaded gasoline with catalyst

0,0

NA

NA

NA

NA

4

Ethanol with catalyst

0,00

NA

NA

NA

NA

b

 

 

 

2Stroke engines

         

1

Leaded fuel

3,5

NA

NA

NA

NA

2

Unleaded fuel

2,5

NA

NA

NA

NA

c

 

 

 

Diesel engines

         

1

Regular Diesel

0,1

NA

NA

NA

ND

2

Biodiesel

0,1

NA

NA

NA

ND

d

 

 

Heavy oil fired engines

         

1

All types

2

NA

NA

NA

ND

                               

 

Emission factors for group 6 – Open Burning Processes

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

 

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Open Burning Processes

           

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biomass burning

           

1

Agricultural residue burning in the field of cereal and other crops stubble, impacted, poor burning conditions

30

ND

10

NA

ND

 

2

Agricultural residue burning in the field of cereal and other crops stubble, not impacted

0,5

ND

0,05

NA

ND

 

3

Sugarcane burning

4

ND

0,05

     

4

Forest fires

1

ND

0,15

NA

ND

 

5

Grassland and savannah fires

0,5

ND

0,15

NA

ND

 

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waste burning and accidental fires

           

1

Fires at waste dumps (compacted, wet, high organic carbon content)

300

ND

10

NA

NA

 

2

Accidental fires in houses, factories

400

ND

400

NA

NA

 

3

Open burning of domestic waste

40

ND

1

NA

NA

 

4

Accidental fires in vehicles (per vehicle)

100

ND

18

NA

NA

 

5

Open burning of wood (construction/demolition)

60

ND

10

NA

NA

 
                                   

 

Emission factors for group 7 – Production and Use of Chemicals and Consumer Goods

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

 

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Production and Use of Chemicals and Consumer Goods

           

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pulp and paper mills*

           

 

Boilers (per ton ADt pulp)

           

1

Recovery boilers fueled with black liquor

0,03

     

ND

 

2

Power boilers fueled with sludge and/or biomass/bark

0,5

     

5

 

3

Power boilers fueled with salt‐laden wood

13

     

228

 
 

Acqueous discharges and products

           

1

Kraft process, Cl2, non‐wood, PCP‐contaminated fibers

 

ND

 

30

ND

 

2

Kraft process, Cl2

 

4,5

 

10

4,5

 

3

Mixed technology

 

1,0

 

3

1,5

 

4

Sulphite pulp / paper, old technology

 

ND

 

1

ND

 

5

Kraft process, modern technology (ClO2)

 

0,06

 

0,5

0,2

 

6

Sulphite paper, new technology (ClO2, TCF)

 

ND

 

0,1

ND

 

7

Thermo‐mechanical process

 

ND

 

1,0

ND

 

8

Paper recycling with contaminated waste paper

 

ND

 

10

   

9

Paper recycling with modern paper

 

ND

 

3

ND

 

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorinated Inorganic Chemicals

           
 

Elemental chlorine production(per ton ECU)

           

1

Chlor‐alkali production using graphite anodes

ND

ND

ND

ND

1000

 

2

Chlor‐alkali production using titanium electrodes

           

2a

Low‐End Technologies

ND

17

ND

ND

27

 

2b

Mid‐Range Technologies

ND

1,7

ND

ND

1,7

 

2c

High‐End Technologies

ND

0,002

ND

ND

0,3

 

c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorinated Aliphatic Chemicals

           
 

ECD/VCM and EDC/VCM/PVCvent and liquidvent combustors (per ton VCM)

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

5

         

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

0,5

         

3

High‐End Technologies*

0,05

         
 

ECD/VCM and EDC/VCM/PVCspent catalyst from facilties utilizing a fixedbed oxychlorination catalyst (per ton EDC)

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

       

8

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

       

0,85

 

3

High‐End Technologies*

       

0,02

 

 

ECD/VCM and EDC/VCM/PVCproduction processes (per ton EDC)

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

           

1a

With fixed‐bed oxychlorination catalyst

 

25

NA

2

0,75

 

1b

With fluidized‐bed oxychlorination catalyst

 

25

NA

2

4

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

           

2a

With fixed‐bed oxychlorination catalyst

 

2,5

NA

0

0,2

 

2b

With fluidized‐bed oxychlorination catalyst

 

2,5

NA

0

2

 

3

High‐End Technologies*

           

3a

With fixed‐bed oxychlorination catalyst

 

0,5

NA

ND

0,095

 

3b

With fluidized‐bed oxychlorination catalyst

 

0,5

NA

ND

0,4

 
 

PVC only (per ton PVC product)

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

1

0,03

NA

ND

0,095

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

0,1

0,003

NA

ND

0,06

 

3

High‐End Technologies*

0,021

0,0003

NA

NA

0,005

 

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorinated Aromatic Chemicals (per ton product)

           
 

Chlorobenzenes

           

1

1,4‐Dichlorobenzene

ND

ND

NA

39

ND

 
 

PCB

           

1

Low chlorinated, Clophen A30, Aroclor 1242

     

15 000

   

2

Medium chlorinated, Clophen A40, Aroclor 1248

     

70 000

   

3

Medium chlorinated, Clophen A50, Aroclor 1254

     

300 000

   

4

High chlorinated, Clophen A60, Aroclor 1260

     

1 500 000

   
 

PCP and PCPNa

           

1

PCP

ND

ND

ND

634 000

ND

 

2

PCP‐Na

ND

ND

ND

12 500

ND

 
 

2,4,5-T and 2,4,6-2,4,6-trichlorophenol

           

1

2,4,5-T

ND

ND

ND

7 000

ND

 

2

2,4,6-trichlorophenol

ND

ND

ND

700

ND

 
 

Chloronitrofen (CNP)

           

1

Old technologies

ND

ND

ND

9 200 000

ND

 

2

New technologies

ND

ND

ND

4 500

ND

 
 

Пентахлорнитробензол (ПеХНБ)

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

5 600

ND

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

ND

ND

ND

2 600

ND

 

3

High‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

260

ND

 
 

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and derivatives

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

5 688

ND

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

ND

ND

ND

170

ND

 

3

High‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

0,1

ND

 
 

Chlorinated Paraffins

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

ND

ND

ND

500

ND

 

3

High‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

140

ND

 
 

Pchloranil

           

1

Direct chlorination of phenol

ND

ND

ND

400 000

ND

 

2

Chlorination of hydroquinone with minimal purification

ND

ND

ND

1 500 000

ND

 

3

Chlorination of hydroquinone with moderate purification

ND

ND

ND

26 000

ND

 

4

Chlorination of hydroquinone with advanced purification

ND

ND

ND

150

ND

 
 

Phthalocyanine dyes and pigments

           

1

Phthalocyanine copper

ND

ND

ND

70

ND

 

2

Phthalocyanine green

ND

ND

ND

1 400

ND

 
 

Dioxazine dyes and pigments

           

1

Blue 106

ND

ND

ND

35 000

ND

 

2

Blue 108

ND

ND

ND

100

ND

 

3

Violet 23

ND

ND

ND

12 000

ND

 
 

Triclosan

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

1 700

82000

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

ND

ND

ND

60

ND

 

3

High‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

3

ND

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Chlorinated and NonChlorinated Chemicals (per ton product)

           
 

TiCl4 и TiO2

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

ND

0,2

ND

0

42

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

ND

0,001

ND

0

8

 
 

Caprolactam

           

1

Caprolactam

0,00035

0,5

ND

ND

ND

 

f

 

 

 

 

 

 

Petroleum refining

           

1

Flares (per TJ fuel burned)

0,25

NA

NA

NA

ND

 
 

Production processes(per ton oil)

           

1

Catalytic reforming unit

0,02

NA

NA

NA

14

 

2

Coking unit

0,4

NA

NA

NA

ND

 

3

Refinery‐wide wastewater treatment

ND

5

ND

ND

ND

 

g

 

 

 

 

Textile plants (per ton of textiles)

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

ND

ND

ND

100

ND

 

2

Mid‐Range, non‐BAT Technologies

ND

ND

ND

0,1

ND

 

3

High‐End, BAT Technologies

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

 

h

 

 

 

Leather plants

           

1

Low‐End Technologies

NA

ND

ND

1 000

ND

 

2

Mid‐Range Technologies

NA

ND

ND

10

ND

 
                                   

 

Emission factors for group 8 – Miscellaneous

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

 

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miscellaneous

           

a

 

 

 

 

Drying of biomass

           

1

Highly contaminated fuel (PCP treated)

10

NA

ND

0,1

2000

 

2

Moderately contaminated fuel

0,1

NA

ND

0,1

20

 

3

Clean fuel

0,01

NA

ND

0,5

5

 

b

 

 

 

 

Crematoria

           

1

No control (per cremation)

90

NA

NA

NA

ND

 

2

Medium control of cleaning emissions (for cremation)

10

NA

NA

NA

2,5

 

3

Optimal control of cleaning emissions (per cremation)

0,4

NA

NA

NA

2,5

 

c

 

 

 

 

Smoke houses

           

1

Impregnated wood, waste oils used as fuel

50

NA

ND

ND

2 000

 

2

Clean fuels, no afterburner

6

NA

ND

ND

20

 

3

Clean fuels, afterburner

0,6

NA

ND

ND

20

 

d

 

 

 

Dry cleaning

           

1

Heavy textiles, PCP‐treated, etc.

NA

NA

NA

NA

3 000

 

2

Normal textiles

NA

NA

NA

NA

50

 

e

 

 

 

Tobacco smoking *

           

1

Cigar (per million cigars)

0,3

NA

NA

NA

0,3

 

2

Cigarette (per million cigarettes)

0,1

NA

NA

NA

0,1

 
                                   

 

Emission factors for group 9 – Disposal and Landfill

 

 

 

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

 

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disposal and Landfill

           

a

 

 

 

 

Landfills, Waste Dumps and Landfill Mining

           

1

Hazardous wastes

NA

5

NA

NA

NA

 

2

Mixed wastes

NA

0,5

NA

NA

50

 

3

Domestic wastes

NA

0,05

NA

NA

5

 

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sewage and sewage treatment(

           

1

Mixed domestic and specific industrial inputs

NA

         
 

No sludge removal

NA

10

NA

NA

NA

 
 

With sludge removal

NA

1

NA

NA

200

 

2

Urban and industrial inputs

NA

         
 

No sludge removal

NA

1

NA

NA

NA

 
 

With sludge removal

NA

0,2

NA

NA

20

 

3

Domestic inputs

           
 

No sludge removal

NA

0,4

NA

NA

NA

 
 

With sludge removal

NA

0,4

NA

NA

4

 

c

 

 

 

 

Open water dumping(

           

1

Mixed domestic and industrial wastewater

NA

0,005

NA

NA

NA

 

2

Urban and peri‐urban wastewater

NA

0,0002

NA

NA

NA

 

3

Remote environments

NA

0,0001

NA

NA

NA

 

d

 

 

 

Composting

           

1

Organic wastes separated from mixed wastes

NA

ND

NA

50

NA

 

2

Clean compost

NA

ND

NA

5

NA

 

e

 

 

Waste oil disposal

           

1

All fractions

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

 
                                   

 

Emission factors for group 10 – Contaminated Sites and Hotspots

     

Source categories

Potential Release Route (µg TEQ/t)

 

Group

Cat.  

Class  

 

Air

Water

Land

Products

Residue

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contaminated Sites andHotspots

   

a

 

 

 

Production sites of chlorine

   

1

Chlor‐alkali production

   

2

Leblanc process and associated chlorine/bleach production

   

b

 

 

 

 

 

 

Production sites of chlorinated organics

   

1

Production sites of chlorophenol

   

2

Former lindane production where HCH waste isomers have been recycled

   

3

Former production sites of other chemicals suspected to contain PCDD/PCDF

   

4

Production sites of chlorinated solvents and other “HCB waste”

   

5

(Former) PCB and PCB‐containing materials/equipment production

   

c

 

Application sites of PCDD/PCDF containing pesticides and chemicals

   

d

 

Timber manufacture and treatment stes

   

e

 

Textile and leather factories

   

f

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PCB-containing equipment

   

 

With low chlorine content (eg. Clophen A30, Aroclor 1242)

15 000

 

 

With medium chlorine content (eg Klofen A40, Arochlor chlorine 1248)

70 000

 

 

With medium chlorine content (eg Klofen A50, Arochlor chlorine 1254)

300 000

 

 

With high chlorine content (eg. Clophen A60, Aroclor 1260)

1 500 000

 

1

With leaks

   

2

No leaks

   

g

 

Use of chlorine for production of metals and inorganic chemicals

   

h

 

Waste incinerators

   

i

 

Metal industries

   

j

 

Fire accidents

   

k

 

Dredging (excavation) and contaminated floodplains

   

l

 

Dumps of wastes/residues from groups 19

   

m

 

Kaolin or ball clay sites